Tobacco and women's infertility
Fertility problems in women start with the fact that they start smoking at a very young age. A second factor is that nowadays women start conceiving at a later age. This presents a double problem for fertility due to the fact that the older the person is, the older the ovaries. Further, tobacco causes ovary's premature aging. The damage's degree caused by tobacco depends on the quantity of smoked cigarettes and how many years the women has been smoking.
Tobacco affects specially women because women are born with a specific amount of ovaries, which progressively diminishes the more the time passes. Tobacco accelerates the loss of ovaries and accelerates the menopause. In this way the overall fertility time diminishes as well. Tobacco has a negative impact in the amount of ovaries and this causes an early menopause.
It has been demonstrated that the cigarette's smoke components interfere in the capacity of the ovary to produce oestrogens and it causes that the oocytes are more prone to genetic abnormalities. Further it promotes the involuntary abortions, which is directly related with the amount of consumed cigarettes. The more cigarettes are smoked, the higher the probability of having abortions. Smoking around 20 cigarettes a day doubles the rate of abortions.
Fertility treatment's response under tobacco use: 30% of smoking women present a worse oocyte quality, chromosomic abnormalities and ectopic pregnancies. An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized oocyte does not get developed in the uterus. It can get developed in places such as the fallopian tube, the ovary, the cervical channel, the pelvic cavity or the abdominal cavity. Nicotine affects the maturation process of the ovarie's follicles and this contributes to worse parameters in the in-vitro fertilization processes.
Even though long term smoking has an irreversible effect over the ovary's function, its harmful effect can be eliminated during the fertility treatment if the couple quit smoking before starting the fertility treatment. A study has concluded that the positive results of the fertility treatment increase if the couple quit smoking at least two months before starting with the treatment.